The Diet of Finland and parliament 1863–1919

Continuity is the most important feature of Finnish democracy in international comparison. The modern parliamentary system dates back to 1863 when the Diet of Finland with the four Estates started to convene. Democratic legislative procedures and the party system evolved, even though the Russian Emperor ultimately made the decisions autocratically. In 1907, the congress was […]

Manner, Kullervo

Kullervo Manner – a socialist Speaker of parliament as the head of state of Red Finland Kullervo Manner (1880–1939) served as Speaker of the Finnish parliament with a socialist majority in 1917. In 1918, he became Chairman of the People’s Delegation that governed the so-called Red Finland. Towards the end of the civil war, Manner […]

Svinhufvud, P. E.

P. E. Svinhufvud – a lawyer, a supporter of Finnish independence, a defender of democracy P. E. Svinhufvud (1861–1944) was a key contributor to the achievement and consolidation of Finnish statehood in three different stages of history. He was the most prominent figure in the legal battle of the early 20th century that led to the […]